Behaviors improve an animals ability to survive and reproduce. Foraging behavior: is when the animals locate, obtain, and consume food. It involves a trade-off between the food’s energy content and its availability. Specialists feed very efficiently (on a single type of food). Generalists feed less efficiently (on variety of food). Predators food comes in different sizes. **Optimal foraging: animals sometimes maximize energy intake per unit time.
Communication between animals are often complex. The sender signals by codes (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste). The receiver decodes the signals to stimulate the responses. Primate communication involves a vocabulary of vocalizations. The human ability to learn language is genetic, and humans tend to learn quickly when they are at a young age.
Courtship behavior: the attracting of a male. Many behaviors are involved when choosing a mate (mate choice). Males and females usually differ in the reproductive strategies. The females are usually the ones who select/ evaluate between the males. The males usually have unique characteristics used in courtship display. Sexual selection favors traits that increase the ability of individuals to attract mates. EXAMPLE: some specific female birds are attracted to males with long tails (since they have less parasites). This is a great indicator for health and it makes sense that females favor males with long tails. Their inner genes make them pick males with long tails, indicator of fitness. **The ability to smell good genes is a talent. The brain is interpreting the “smell”,there is no smell. Parental care: is the ensuring of the young’s survival. Females invest more heavily in offsprings for mammals. Gestation, lactation. Females are different from mails because of the different ways the gametes are made: sperm and eggs.
Territorial behavior: protects a resource for exclusive use. EXAMPLE: marking with a scent, attacking intruders, vocalizations. Defensive behavior: protects from predators. EXAMPLE: signals that deter predators. Migratory behavior: move from one environment to a more suitable environment as seasons change. EXAMPLE: butterflies, seasonal movement for food ability.