Cranial Capacity and Diet (p.320)
1 a) As the cranial capacity increases the dietary energy increases as well. The most largest cranial capacity in seen in the Early H. sapiens compared to the other primates, as it has a high dietary energy. Anomalies include the Modern chimpanzee and P.boisei which did not have a increase in dietary energy in relation to its increase in cranial capacity.
b) As the cranial capacity increased, the hominids may have obtained a greater intelligence, enabling them to earn a greater diet quality. With a greater intelligence, the hominids can use their tools in a more sophisticated manner. Using the tools, they may be able to hunt and kill animals with more ease and more efficiently than how the early hominids obtained resources.
2 a) The prognathism, the lower part of the face, of the fossil will enable to suggest that there was an increase in meat consumption as the size of the jaw and teeth evolved over time. The jaw has become more flattened and teeth have become smaller in size as the hominids diet has evolved to become more rich in meat consumption, which needs less force to chew down compared to vegetables.
b) This change to a more carnivorous diet might have been important in the evolution of humans as the consumption of this diet may have enabled more nutrients to be consumed. With more nutrients stored in the bodies, it enables humans to live a longer life and provide further brain growth. As the brain developed, greater intelligence was able to be obtained and helped humans to live a more efficiently.
3 a) As the relative diet quality increased, so did the relative brain size.
b) A reason for humans being above the trend line for this relationship includes how humans were able to obtain a larger brain size compared to other primates, enabling them to have greater intelligence and were able to develop more efficient ways of obtaining a better diet quality.