Inferring Evolutionary Relationship (p.317)
1) (a) Cytochrome C
(b) Since greater amounts of protein are apparent between the sheep and the cows, we can say that the ancestors of sheep have diverged more recently from cows. Also as we analyze the data, the few base substitutions that have occurred reveal the close relationship between these two species.
(c) The variation in the molecules may indicate phylogeny of these groups of mammals as the universal genetic code enables scientists to trace back the evolutionary route by analyzing the proteins and amino acid base substitutions.
2) The time at which each individual species had branched out would be helpful during the construction of a phylogentic tree. Also, any details on the specific divergence of how the species have been in close relation to diverging together and its evolutionary pathways could add on to the processing of a phylogenetic tree.
3) A relationship between morphology and the number of differences between species can be evident. As there are more differences apparent between the species, a greater amount of differences in the morphology of the species are visible.