327-8; DBQ: 328
- develops as a result of experience
- they do not inherit specific patterns of behavior
- offspring behave similarly to their parents; only because they learn behavior patterns from them (not genes)
- has advantages over innate behavior
- allows responsiveness to change/variation in environment
- can improve chances of survival
- a type of learning: conditioning
- saliva secreted in response to the sight/smell of food
- eliciting saliva when food comes
- unconditioned stimuli: stimulus that animals respond to without learning
- unconditioned response: secretion of saliva that results
- eliciting saliva when bell rings/ sees woman/metronome ticking before food is given out
- conditioned stimuli: a different signal to dog before food received
- conditioned response: secretion of saliva that these stimuli elicit
- can increase survival chances
DBQ: Birdsong- innate or learned? (p.328)
1) The sonogram I has a more varied frequency of the pitch throughout the time in comparison to the sonogram II which shows a constant frequency of three various pitches. Both sonograms I and II start with a fairly constant pitch followed by a very drastic and fast change in pitches.
2) a) Sonogram II has a more thicker and louder pitch of noises shown with the thicker lines in contrast to sonograms I and II. Also, the frequency of the notes are more spread out and less frequent in comparison to the sonograms I and II.
b) The song of white-crowned sparrows is due to both innate factors and learning as the birds hold both aspects of the song. The innate factor is seen through the birds ability to recognize other members of the species. The learned aspects come from the birds ability to provide differences in the song thus enabling mates to chose for each quality of the singing.
3) a) Sonogram V is similar to sonogram IV as both show a lowering in the pitch of the birdsong as the time goes on. Also, the birdsongs both consists of a lot of small changes in the pitches throughout. Yet the sonogram V started with a long consistent pitch unlike sonogram IV.
b) Sonogram V and sonograms I and II are similar in the way they both start with a consistent first pitch followed by a sudden change in pitches and frequency in a short span of time. Yet the sonogram V goes from a higher pitch to a lower pitch throughout which contradicts to the sonograms I and II which show a consistent pitch of the sounds even if the frequency changes.
c) Birds rarely imitate other species to stand out to the other mates and to differ in sound in order to compete between other birds. Also, it may be hard to imitate other sounds as they all have different characteristics and abilities to give out certain pitches.
d) Morton and Baptista’s observation is evidence for innate or learned development of birdsongs because the white-crowned sparrows although the same species, both in sonograms I and II had shown different songs as they have learned to give out different songs after building on their innate behavior to attract mates. ALso, the last sonogram V shows the white-crowned sparrow to be adapted to the strawberry finches birdsong as they have incorporated some aspects from the strawberry finch while still maintaining some similar pitches like the original white-crowned sparrows, seen in sonograms I and II.